The Babylonian Empire, B.C. 606-538. This period has been more correctly termed that of the “four kingdoms,” since the East was not then, as during the Assyrian period, under one government.
The destruction of Nineveh had been wrought by the union of the Medes and Babylonians, under their kings, Cyaxares and Nabopolassar. And then these peoples succeeded to most, but not all, of the conquests of Assyria.
Media won its own independence, and obtained possession of Armenia, Assyria Proper (north of the Tigris), and Elam. Persia was already conquered. So the largest, though less important, portion of the Assyrian empire now belonged to Media.
Babylonia obtained Chaldea, Mesopotamia, Syria and Palestine. Most of these countries had claimed their independence on the fall of Assyria. And so their conquest occupied the reign of Nabopolassar, and his greater son, Nebuchadnezzar. Thus the important parts of the Bible world were nearly all under the rule of Babylon.
The Fall of Babylon Empire
The Fall of Babylon Empire denotes the end of the Neo-Babylonian Empire after it was conquered by the Achaemenid Empire in 539 BCE. Then in the same year, 539 BCE, Cyrus the Great invaded Babylonia thus turning it into a colony of Achaemenid Persia. Cyrus then claimed to be the legitimate successor of the ancient Babylonian kings.
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